instrument  Reflectivity instrument definition¶
Instrument representation for scanning reflectometers. 

Instrument representation for pulsed reflectometers. 
Reflectometry instrument definitions.
An instrument definition contains all the information necessary to compute
the resolution for a measurement. See resolution
for details.
This module is intended to help define new instrument loaders
Scanning Reflectometers¶
refl1d.instrument
(this module) defines two instrument types:
Monochromatic
and Pulsed
. These represent
generic scanning and time of flight instruments, respectively.
To perform a simulation or load a data set, a measurement geometry must be defined. In the following example, we set up the geometry for a pretend instrument SP:2. The complete geometry needs to include information to calculate wavelength resolution (wavelength and wavelength dispersion) as well as angular resolution (slit distances and openings, and perhaps sample size and sample warp). In this case, we are using a scanning monochromatic instrument with slits of 0.1 mm below 0.5° and opening slits above 0.5° starting at 0.2 mm. The monochromatic instrument assumes a fixed \(\Delta \theta / \theta\) while opening.
>>> from refl1d.names import *
>>> geometry = Monochromatic(instrument="SP:2", radiation="neutron",
... wavelength=5.0042, dLoL=0.009, d_s1=230+1856, d_s2=230,
... Tlo=0.5, slits_at_Tlo=0.2, slits_below=0.1)
This instrument can be used to a data file, or generate a measurement probe for use in modeling or to read in a previously measured data set or generate a probe for simulation:
>>> from numpy import linspace, loadtxt
>>> datafile = sample_data('10ndt001.refl')
>>> Q, R, dR = loadtxt(datafile).T
>>> probe = geometry.probe(Q=Q, data=(R, dR))
>>> simulation = geometry.probe(T=linspace(0, 5, 51))
All instrument parameters can be specified when constructing the probe, replacing the defaults that are associated with the instrument. For example, to include sample broadening effects in the resolution:
>>> probe2 = geometry.probe(Q=Q, data=(R, dR), sample_broadening=0.1,
... name="probe2")
For magnetic systems a polarized beam probe is needed:
>>> magnetic_probe = geometry.magnetic_probe(T=np.linspace(0, 5, 100))
The string representation of the geometry prints a multiline description of the default instrument configuration:
>>> print(geometry)
== Instrument SP:2 ==
radiation = neutron at 5.0042 Angstrom with 0.9% resolution
slit distances = 2086 mm and 230 mm
fixed region below 0.5 and above 90 degrees
slit openings at Tlo are 0.2 mm
sample width = 1e+10 mm
sample broadening = 0 degrees
Predefined Instruments¶
Specific instruments can be defined for each facility. This saves the users having to remember details of the instrument geometry.
For example, the above SP:2 instrument could be defined as follows:
>>> class SP2(Monochromatic):
... instrument = "SP:2"
... radiation = "neutron"
... wavelength = 5.0042 # Angstroms
... dLoL = 0.009 # FWHM
... d_s1 = 230.0 + 1856.0 # mm
... d_s2 = 230.0 # mm
... def load(self, filename, **kw):
... Q, R, dR = loadtxt(datafile).T
... probe = self.probe(Q=Q, data=(R, dR), **kw)
... return probe
This definition can then be used to define the measurement geometry. We have added a load method which knows about the facility file format (in this case, three column ASCII data Q, R, dR) so that we can load a datafile in a couple of lines of code:
>>> geometry = SP2(Tlo=0.5, slits_at_Tlo=0.2, slits_below=0.1)
>>> probe3 = geometry.load(datafile)
The defaults() method prints the static components of the geometry:
>>> print(SP2.defaults())
== Instrument class SP:2 ==
radiation = neutron at 5.0042 Angstrom with 0.9% resolution
slit distances = 2086 mm and 230 mm
GUI Usage¶
Graphical user interfaces follow different usage patterns from scripts. Here the emphasis will be on selecting a data set to process, displaying its default metadata and allowing the user to override it.
File loading should follow the pattern established in reflectometry reduction, with an extension registry and a fallback scheme whereby files can be checked in a predefined order. If the file cannot be loaded, then the next loader is tried. This should be extended with the concept of a magic signature such as those used by graphics and sound file applications: read the first block and run it through the signature check before trying to load it. For unrecognized extensions, all loaders can be tried.
The file loader should return an instrument instance with metadata initialized from the file header. This metadata can be displayed to the user along with a plot of the data and the resolution. When metadata values are changed, the resolution can be recomputed and the display updated. When the data set is accepted, the final resolution calculation can be performed.
 class refl1d.instrument.Monochromatic(**kw)[source]¶
Bases:
object
Instrument representation for scanning reflectometers.
 Parameters:
 instrumentstring
name of the instrument
 radiationstring  xray or neutron
source radiation type
 d_s1, d_s2float  mm
distance from sample to presample slits 1 and 2; postsample slits are ignored
 wavelengthfloat  Å
wavelength of the instrument
 dLoLfloat
constant relative wavelength dispersion; wavelength range and dispersion together determine the bins
 slitsfloat OR (float, float)  mm
fixed slits
 slits_at_Tlofloat OR (float, float)  mm
slit 1 and slit 2 openings at Tlo; this can be a scalar if both slits are open by the same amount, otherwise it is a pair (s1, s2).
 slits_at_Qlofloat OR (float, float)  mm
equivalent to slits_at_Tlo, for instruments that are controlled by Q rather than theta
 Tlo, Thifloat  °
range of opening slits, or inf if slits are fixed.
 Qlo, Qhifloat  Å^{1}
range of opening slits when instrument is controlled by Q.
 slits_below, slits_abovefloat OR (float, float)  mm
slit 1 and slit 2 openings below Tlo and above Thi; again, these can be scalar if slit 1 and slit 2 are the same, otherwise they are each a pair (s1, s2). Below and above default to the values of the slits at Tlo and Thi respectively.
 sample_widthfloat  mm
width of sample; at low angle with tiny samples, stray neutrons miss the sample and are not reflected onto the detector, so the sample itself acts as a slit, therefore the width of the sample may be needed to compute the resolution correctly
 sample_broadeningfloat  ° FWHM
amount of angular divergence (+) or focusing () introduced by the sample; this is caused by sample warp, and may be read off of the rocking curve by subtracting (s1+s2)/2/(d_s1d_s2) from the FWHM width of the rocking curve
 Thi = 90¶
 Tlo = 90¶
 calc_dT(**kw)[source]¶
Compute the angular divergence for given slits and angles
 Parameters:
 T OR Q[float]  ° OR Å^{1}
measurement angles
 slitsfloat OR (float, float)  mm
total slit opening from edge to edge, not beam center to edge
 d_s1, d_s2float  mm
distance from sample to slit 1 and slit 2
 sample_widthfloat  mm
size of sample
 sample_broadeningfloat  ° FWHM
resolution changes from sample warp
 Returns:
 dT[float]  ° FWHM
angular divergence
sample_broadening can be estimated from W, the full width at half maximum of a rocking curve measured in degrees:
sample_broadening = W  degrees( 0.5*(s1+s2) / (d1d2))
 calc_slits(**kw)[source]¶
Determines slit openings from measurement pattern.
If slits are fixed simply return the same slits for every angle, otherwise use an opening range [Tlo, Thi] and the value of the slits at the start of the opening to define the slits. Slits below Tlo and above Thi can be specified separately.
T OR Q incident angle or Q Tlo, Thi angle range over which slits are opening slits_at_Tlo openings at the start of the range, or fixed opening slits_below, slits_above openings below and above the range
Use fixed_slits is available, otherwise use opening slits.
 dLoL = None¶
 d_s1 = None¶
 d_s2 = None¶
 fixed_slits = None¶
 instrument = 'monochromatic'¶
 magnetic_probe(Aguide=270.0, shared_beam=True, H=0, **kw)[source]¶
Simulate a polarized measurement probe.
Returns a probe with Q, angle, wavelength and the associated uncertainties, but not any data.
Guide field angle Aguide can be specified, as well as keyword arguments for the geometry of the probe cross sections such as slits_at_Tlo, Tlo, Thi, slits_below, and slits_above to define the angular divergence.
 probe(**kw)[source]¶
Return a probe for use in simulation.
 Parameters:
 Q[float]  Å
Q values to be measured.
 T[float]  °
Angles to be measured.
Additional keyword parameters
 Returns:
 probeProbe
Measurement probe with complete resolution information. The probe will not have any data.
If both Q and T are specified then Q takes precedents.
You can override instrument parameters using key=value. In particular, settings for slits_at_Tlo, Tlo, Thi, slits_below, and slits_above are used to define the angular divergence.
 radiation = 'unknown'¶
 resolution(**kw)[source]¶
Calculate resolution at each angle.
 Return:
 T, dT[float]  °
Angles and angular divergence.
 L, dL[float]  Å
Wavelengths and wavelength dispersion.
 sample_broadening = 0¶
 sample_width = 10000000000.0¶
 slits_above = None¶
 slits_at_Tlo = None¶
 slits_below = None¶
 wavelength = None¶
 class refl1d.instrument.Pulsed(**kw)[source]¶
Bases:
object
Instrument representation for pulsed reflectometers.
 Parameters:
 instrumentstring
name of the instrument
 radiationstring  xray, neutron
source radiation type
 TOF_range(float, float)
usabe range of times for TOF data
 Tfloat  °
sample angle
 d_s1, d_s2float  mm
distance from sample to presample slits 1 and 2; postsample slits are ignored
 wavelength(float, float)  Å
wavelength range for the measurement
 dLoLfloat
constant relative wavelength dispersion; wavelength range and dispersion together determine the bins
 slitsfloat OR (float, float)  mm
fixed slits
 slits_at_Tlofloat OR (float, float)  mm
slit 1 and slit 2 openings at Tlo; this can be a scalar if both slits are open by the same amount, otherwise it is a pair (s1, s2).
 Tlo, Thifloat  °
range of opening slits, or inf if slits are fixed.
 slits_below, slits_abovefloat OR (float, float)  mm
slit 1 and slit 2 openings below Tlo and above Thi; again, these can be scalar if slit 1 and slit 2 are the same, otherwise they are each a pair (s1, s2). Below and above default to the values of the slits at Tlo and Thi respectively.
 sample_widthfloat  mm
width of sample; at low angle with tiny samples, stray neutrons miss the sample and are not reflected onto the detector, so the sample itself acts as a slit, therefore the width of the sample may be needed to compute the resolution correctly
 sample_broadeningfloat  ° FWHM
amount of angular divergence (+) or focusing () introduced by the sample; this is caused by sample warp, and may be read off of the rocking curve by subtracting 0.5*(s1+s2)/(d_s1d_s2) from the FWHM width of the rocking curve
 T = None¶
 TOF_range = (0, inf)¶
 Thi = 90¶
 Tlo = 90¶
 calc_slits(**kw)[source]¶
Determines slit openings from measurement pattern.
If slits are fixed simply return the same slits for every angle, otherwise use an opening range [Tlo, Thi] and the value of the slits at the start of the opening to define the slits. Slits below Tlo and above Thi can be specified separately.
T incident angle Tlo, Thi angle range over which slits are opening slits_at_Tlo openings at the start of the range, or fixed opening slits_below, slits_above openings below and above the range
Use fixed_slits is available, otherwise use opening slits.
 dLoL = None¶
 d_s1 = None¶
 d_s2 = None¶
 fixed_slits = None¶
 instrument = 'pulsed'¶
 magnetic_probe(Aguide=270.0, shared_beam=True, **kw)[source]¶
Simulate a polarized measurement probe.
Returns a probe with Q, angle, wavelength and the associated uncertainties, but not any data.
Guide field angle Aguide can be specified, as well as keyword arguments for the geometry of the probe cross sections such as slit settings slits and T to define the angular divergence and dLoL to define the wavelength resolution.
 probe(**kw)[source]¶
Simulate a measurement probe.
Returns a probe with Q, angle, wavelength and the associated uncertainties, but not any data.
You can override instrument parameters using key=value. In particular, slit settings slits and T define the angular divergence and dLoL defines the wavelength resolution.
 radiation = 'neutron'¶
 resolution(L, dL, **kw)[source]¶
Return the resolution of the measurement. Needs T, L, dL specified as keywords.
 sample_broadening = 0¶
 sample_width = 10000000000.0¶
 simulate(sample, uncertainty=1, **kw)[source]¶
Simulate a run with a particular sample.
 Parameters:
 sampleStack
Reflectometry model
 T[float]  °
List of angles to be measured, such as [0.15, 0.4, 1, 2].
 slits[float] or [(float, float)]  mm
Slit settings for each angle.
 uncertainty = 1float or [float]  %
Incident intensity is set so that the median dR/R is equal to uncertainty, where R is the idealized reflectivity of the sample.
 dLoL = 0.02: float
Wavelength resolution
 normalize = Trueboolean
Whether to normalize the intensities
 theta_offset = 0float  °
Sample alignment error
 background = 0float
Background counts per incident neutron (background is assumed to be independent of measurement geometry).
 back_reflectivity = Falseboolean
Whether beam travels through incident medium or through substrate.
 back_absorption = 1float
Absorption factor for beam traveling through substrate. Only needed for back reflectivity measurements.
 slits = None¶
 slits_above = None¶
 slits_at_Tlo = None¶
 slits_below = None¶
 wavelength = None¶